Coach Mike Smith said Tuesday that Peters suffered a non-contact injury and likely will be sidelined until the start of the 2014 season.
Peters, a pending unrestricted free agent, was drafted in the third round of 2010 out of Kentucky. The fourth-year starter tweeted that he plans to "come back stronger than ever" next year.
Smith says that rookie safety Zeke Motta, a seventh-round pick from Notre Dame, will go on the reserved injured list after undergoing neck surgery Sunday to repair his first cervical.
Peters has nine career sacks, including five this season, and has started 53 of 56 games.
Motta started one game, two weeks ago against Washington.